The worldwide Governance Indicators rely on 31 data sources, including surveys of enterprises and citizens, and expert polls, gathered from 25 different organizations around the world (D. KAUFMANN, A. KRAAY & M. MASTRUZZI 2010). These provide data derived from hundreds of questions about governance. Before aggregation is carried out each question is mapped to one of six dimensions of governance: (1) Voice and Accountability; (2) Political Stability and Absence of Violence; (3) Government Effectiveness; (4) Regulatory Quality; (5) Rule of Law; (6) Control of Corruption, before the aggregation is carried out:
Definition of political stability and absence of violence: A measure of the perception of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including political violence and terrorism.
The values of measurement are indexed with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one in each period. Virtually all scores lie between -2.5 and +2.5, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes. The aggregate estimates convey no information about trends in global averages of governance but they are, of course, informative about changes in individual countries over time.
Classes of political stability used in WMD: Estimates < -1.25: extremely unstable; < 0 to -1.25: unstable; > 0 to +1.25: fair; > +1.25: stable;
Kaufmann, Daniel, Kraay, Aart and Mastruzzi, Massimo, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues (September 2010). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5430. Available at SSRN: